Create a memorial
New Mexico, structures of all types, including roads,
bridges, buildings, and dams, were re-named in honor
of the sacrifices of Bataan. Other memorials were built
specifically in memory of Bataan, Corregidor, and its
defenders. While memorials designed for Bataan commemorate
specific aspects of the ordeal, other memorials simply
promote remembrance as we pass, perhaps daily, the Bataan
Memorial Building, over the Bataan Bridge, or along
the Bataan Highway.
Despite these differences, all these memorials ask us
to remember Bataan. But it is fitting to ask: "What,
specifically, are we to remember?" This lesson
challenges students to reflect on the lessons learned
from Bataan and to develop a memorial to bring those
lessons to others.
events and issues based on the historical, economic,
political, social, and geographic context of the participants
(SS I-D, 9-12:4).
Demonstrate the ability to examine history from the
perspectives of the participants (SS Benchmark I-D
Performance Standard 7:2).
the problem solving process to identify a problem;
gather information, suggest solutions, list and consider
advantages and disadvantages of solutions, choose
and implement a solution, and evaluate the effectiveness
of the solution using technology to present findings
(SS I-D, 5-8:7-2).
memorials and their designs
what lessons Bataan teaches us as individuals, as
communities, and as a nation, and narrow that list
down to lessons that are most meaningful to that group
small groups, design a memorial that reflects the
key lessons and present that design to the class.
Presentation materials (posters, computer with presentation
Memorial slideshow and video under Military
Experience from Battle
for Bataan Web site or CD.
View Chloe Huber's
imovie about Bataan and read the article
about her memorial.
Review article on Memorial
Review the article about memorial
Discuss the purpose of memorials. Include in this
discussion memorials that are non- traditional such
as events, printed material, Web sites, ceremonies,
Divide the class into groups of 2-5 students.
Students research memorials and complete the Memorial
Evaluation (each student should research a memorial).
Students brainstorm lessons of Bataan.
From the brainstorm list, students chose 3-5 lessons
that are the most important to them.
Plan a memorial to Bataan based on a lesson from Bataan
or a combination of lessons.
present their designs to the class, explaining symbolism
and describing what the lesson represents to them. Groups
should include how they addressed issues in the landscape
such as noise distractions, use of natural terrain,
complete a self-assessment
after planning their memorial.
Group presentation assessment
Make a memorial. As a class,
create one of the memorials designed in this lesson.
Select one with most meaning to the class, to the community,
or most feasible.
View a memorial. Plan and
take a field trip to a memorial in your town.
Oral history. Invite a veteran
into your classroom to talk about their wartime experiences.
Prepare questions to ask, take an oral history. Ask
them what they learned from their war experiences. Contact
your local Veterans of Foreign Wars post for names.
Who are they? What do you
know about ROTC, National Guard, Army Reserve, and the
U.S. Army? Research these 4 organizations (one student
group per organization, can include other services and
their reserve arms), emphasizing how they work together,
who they recruit, and how the training differs for each
organization. Explain how these branches of the services
are organized (battalions, units, regiments, divisions,
etc.). Your local military recruiter might be a good
source of information. Present your findings to the
Why Bataan? What's in a name?
Soldiers who were on the Bataan Peninsula during the
siege of Bataan were stationed elsewhere in the Philippines
before the withdrawal into Bataan in late 1941. They
endured brutal prison camps throughout the Japanese
empire in addition to the Death March. They starved
and slaved in factories and mines through brutal beatings
and torture. But the entire period is often referred
to as "Bataan" and memorials often invoke
the Death March. Why are Bataan and the Death March
considered symbolic of all the entire ordeal suffered
by the defenders of Bataan?